How to do a Scientific Research





See also: Theme Suggestions

See also: How to start Scientific Research?

See also: What is a Monograph and its concepts

See also: How to prepare using your own Monograph or CBT using ABNT

See also: How to format your own Monograph or TCC using ABNT


Download : monograph or CBT template


Transforming nonlinear into linear, that is the question ?!


The first and greatest difficulty in preparing a monograph lies in knowing the best way to transform thought (which is not linear) into text (linear). The verbalization process by which non-verbal knowledge is transformed into language, is a creative process that requires the issuer to know what to say (content) and how to say it (expression).


However, to produce the monograph, before writing the text itself, when we associate what to say and how to say, a whole arduous path is necessary, that is, the scientific investigation process. In a synthetic way, we can consider that the production of a scientific text consists of two complementary processes: scientific investigation and textual production.


The 4 steps of Scientific Research:


1. Planning, is the mental elaboration of the work followed by hypothesis survey. This first stage is closely linked to the bibliographic consultation, taking into account the researcher's previous knowledge and the problem raised by him.


2. Data collection is obtaining the material to be analyzed.


3. Data organization is the ordering phase of the research material. Most of the time it depends on a new bibliographic consultation.


4. Making tables, graphs can be used or not by the researcher.


Textual Production, at the six newsrooms:

  • writing the results

  • writing of material and methods

  • discussion wording

  • conclusion writing

  • introduction wording

  • synopsis writing


The two basic requirements:

Objectivity - use of the denoted language, that is, each word must present its own meaning, constant in the dictionary and do not allow other interpretations.

Impersonality - the use of the personal pronoun is not recommended.

Verbs that tend to be impersonal should be used.

Caution: Don't be pedantic!

The plural of modesty is not advisable, that is, the use of the pronoun "we" meaning "me".

It is necessary to know how to use properly: Citations and footnotes.

Citation is the mention in the text of information collected from another source.

It can be a simple transcription or paraphrase, direct or indirect, extracted from a written or oral source.


Purpose of Citation

Provide information - Confirm the opinion presented, that is, use the authority's argument to prove or confirm a particular thesis or opinion. Contradict an affirmation, that is, the criticism itself.


As for its external aspects, the citations can be:

Formal - Someone else's textual words (ipsis litteris) are faithfully transcribed.

Conceptual - the ideas of others are reproduced with personal syntheses (paraphrase) Mixed - It is inserted in the synthesis of some text, terms or expressions taken from documents.


Regarding the consulted document



- First hand quotes. The author's ideas are faithfully transcribed.



- Second hand quotes. The ideas collected are transcribed in documents that register them, however, cited by other authors. When the quotation is indirect, the Latin expression apud is used, which means "in", "quoted", "by".

Direct quotation is recommended. Indirect citation is correct, however, whenever possible it should be avoided. The indirect quotation must be used when the work is rare or has not been translated into Portuguese (the author does not speak the original language in which the work was edited) or when it is out of print. When there is intervention by the author of the monograph, in the quotation, it must be enclosed in square brackets. [...................................]


Academic curiosities

If the short quotation starts the period, the quotation marks close after the period.

If the short quote does not start the period, the quotation marks close after the period.



Footnotes are references that appear at the end of the pages, indicating the source consulted.

The explanatory notes (footnote) are explanations that are not included in the text to avoid damage to the argument.



Refer to the author, the work and the place of the citations made in the text. Make certain supplementary or marginal considerations that would not fit in the text without breaking the logical sequence. Refer the reader to other parts of the work, other works or sources