Scientific investigation


How to do a Scientific Research




See also: Theme Suggestions

See also: How to start Scientific Research?

See also: What is a Monograph and its concepts

See also: How to prepare using your own Monograph or CBT using ABNT

See also: How to format your own Monograph or TCC using ABNT


Download : monograph or CBT template


Before starting to read this summary of procedures and concepts regarding the monograph, two small observations are necessary so that there are no mistakes regarding the statements that will be presented.

First observation:

Optional - The word optional means, in its current use, the freedom to do or not do a certain action. Therefore, it is worth noting that in the presentation of the monograph, although it is optional, the more elements it contains, the more complete the work will be.

Of the 14 (fourteen) items present in the monograph, 8 (eight) are optional, paradoxically, however, we must consider them indispensable.

Among many other considerations we can say that even though they are optional:

  • The couplet - enhances the grandeur of human thought.

  • The dedication - shows affection towards someone special.

  • Thanksgiving - values ​​the feeling of humility.

  • The list of tables and illustrations - makes the work visual and clear.

  • The list of abbreviations - prevents any improper association.

  • The annex and the appendix - provide access to the sources consulted.

  • The glossary - clearly defines the meaning of the terms used.

  • Bibliographical references - make the work unambiguous.

Second observation:

The footnotes "see page (see page)" should not be understood as mere curiosity, however, an indispensable procedure for the elaboration of the monograph, uniting the content to the graphic visualization. Therefore, together with the proposed content, carefully follow the suggestion of "see page.", Referring to the rules of graphic presentation contained in the final pages of the manual.


Basic Notions - Facilitating aspects for the elaboration of a monograph:


1. What is it?

Monograph is the written exposition of a specific theme, the result of scientific research or intellectual production.


2. Purpose

Present relevant or original and personal contribution in relation to knowledge, according to specific methodological norms.

3. Types of Scientific Papers


Project - is a pre-monograph, that is, a research on a subject determined by a chair or discipline, with the aim of complementing, replacing or clarifying the student.


Graduation papers or course conclusion papers (TCC) - it is the monograph itself, dealing with a topic related to the course or a discipline. It involves content and technique, with the objective of completing a certain course. The institutionalization of such end-of-course monographs aims to adjust the quality and utilization of the teaching that this or that faculty offers.


Dissertation - is research developed at the postgraduate level (strictu-sensu), required as a requirement for obtaining the academic degree of master. For this, the monograph must reveal mastery of specific knowledge in the area of ​​concentration and capacity for synthesis. The master's dissertation is publicly defended.


Thesis - is the research also developed at the postgraduate level (strictu-sensu). Its main feature is originality. It is also a publicly defended monographic work that should bring an effective contribution to knowledge. Requirement for obtaining the academic degree of doctor and university degrees of free teaching and full professor or full professor.


In general, we can say that a monograph:

  • It is a written, systematic and complete work, detailed study and;

  • Exhaustive, covering various aspects and angles of the case;

  • It deals with a specific or particular theme of a science or part of it;

  • It gives extensive treatment in depth, but not in scope (as it is always delimited);

  • It has scientific methodology.

  • It brings an important, original and personal contribution to science.



You can lose everything if you neglect what a monograph is not. A monograph is not:


  • Pure and simple repetition of what has already been said by others, without presenting anything new, either in terms of focus, either in terms of development or conclusions.

  • Answering a kind of questionnaire is not simply doing a job similar to what was done in an exam or school duties.

  • Manifestation of mere personal opinions without supporting them with logically correlated evidence based on reasoning.

  • Exposure of ideas that are too abstract, alien to both the thoughts, concerns, knowledge or personal desires of the author of the monograph and of his particular maturity. Psychological and intellectual.

  • Presentation of a bookish erudition citing irrelevant, irrelevant and ill-assimilated phrases, or developing periphrases without content or distant from the particular experience of each case.

So a monograph ...

  • It is a job that observes and accumulates information; * organizes this information and observations;

  • It looks for the relations and regularities that may exist between them;

  • Inquire about your whys;

  • Intelligently uses readings and experiences for verification.

  • Communicates your results to others.

Monograph Structure

1 Cover

2 Sheet or cover page

3 Evaluation sheet

4 Couplet or dedication (optional)

5 Acknowledgments (optional)

6 Summary

7 List of tables and illustrations (optional)

8 List of abbreviations, acronyms and symbols (optional)

9 Synopsis

10 Text Structure

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Body of work or development (chapters)

10.3 Conclusion

11 Appendix (s) and / or appendix (s) (optional)

12 Glossary (optional)

13 Bibliographic References (optional)

14 Bibliography Detailing


It is the coverage that covers the work. It must contain identical information and in the same order as the cover page. It is mandatory in theses and dissertations and optional in academic works.


It is the sheet that presents the essential elements for the identification of the work.


It must contain the following data:

  • Author

  • Title

  • Note indicating the academic nature of the work, in addition to the teaching unit and institution in which it is presented.

  • Name of supervisor or professor of the discipline.


Some examples of an explanatory note on the nature of the work: Monograph presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSIDADE Graduate Center for obtaining a master's degree in Business Administration. Monograph presented in partial compliance with the requirements of the UNIVERSIDADE Graduate Center for obtaining a master's degree in Business Administration. Project submitted to the UNIVERSIDADE Postgraduate Center as a requirement to pass the Qualification exam to obtain a master's degree in Business Administration.

3. EVALUATION SHEET: (for Master's Dissertation)

It must appear immediately after the cover sheet, in a separate sheet, with or without the evaluation terms. The title "Examining Board" should appear 17 cm from the top edge of the page or 14 cm from the top edge of the page, indented 9 cm from the left edge or 6 cm from the left edge of the page. The font to be used for the title: 16 times new roman or 14 verdana.


The couplet consists of a maxim or thought related to the exposed content, and may even appear at the beginning of the main parts of the text. The dedication is a tribute paid to someone. Both the badge and the dedication must be arranged on separate sheets, without quotation marks and aligned on the right margin.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: (optional)

Gratitude towards those who, in one way or another, contributed to the success of the work.


It is the list of chapters and sections of the work in the order in which they appear. The summary must be placed before the summary to provide a general overview, facilitating the location of the different parts that make up the text. The summary must include:

Numeric callsign for a given chapter or section and subsections;

The respective titles are connected by dotted lines to the worksheets where the corresponding texts begin.

Do not confuse:

summary is not summary index is not summary table is not synopsis


Know that: index is the detailed list of subjects, names of people, geographical names and others, usually in alphabetical order. synopsis is the concise presentation of the text, highlighting the aspects of greatest interest and importance. list is the enumeration of data and information presentation elements (graphs, maps, tables) used in the work.


Therefore ...


The summary is the list of chapters and sections of the work in the order in which they appear and must appear at the beginning of the work, before the summary (and of the lists of tables and illustrations, abbreviations, acronyms and symbols, if any).

The index must be placed at the end of the monographic work and consists of a detailed list of subjects, names of people, institutions, geographical names, events, etc., which should be organized preferably in alphabetical order, with an indication of their location on the publication page. where it appears.


Enumeration of data and information presentation elements used in the work. They must be inserted in the text, as close as possible to the passage to which they refer. Each table or illustration must have a number and a title. The illustration should be reduced to a single page, avoiding the maximum folding material. Tables and illustrations, when very numerous, must be attached as an attachment so as not to overload the text. If the number of tables or illustrations exceeds five, it is recommended to place it after the index. The graphic construction is the same as the summary.



They have the same structure as the summary and the list of tables and illustrations.



It is the concise presentation of the text, highlighting the aspects of greatest interest and importance. In it the content is presented in reduced text.


Consider these aspects very carefully:

  • Write in the language of the text, with a version in one or more languages ​​of international dissemination advisable, on the next page (Abstract in English);

  • Mandatorily include a synopsis in Portuguese, in the case of works in a foreign language;

  • Write in a single paragraph, in simple space and on a separate page;

  • Write with complete sentences and not with sequences of titles;

  • Emphasize the objectives, methods, results and conclusions of the work.



The text is the part of the work in which the subject is presented in developed. It can be divided into chapters and sections, or only into chapters. It is usually composed of Introduction, Development and Conclusion, however, depending on the purpose for which it is intended, it can be structured in a different way. When writing the text, remember:

  • Introduction

  • Development

  • Conclusion

10.1 Introduction: It is the part of the work where the subject is presented as a whole, without details. This is the author's explanatory element for the reader. The content of the introduction should focus on:

  • announce the theme of the work

  • succinctly clarify the matter

  • delimit the extent and depth that is intended to be adopted in the focus of the theme.

  • present the master ideas of the development of the subject

  • point out the objectives of the work

  • evidence the relevance of the subject to be addressed.

  • the first page of the introduction is counted, but is not numbered.


10.2 Development: Here we have the body of the work itself. It is the most extensive part and aims to communicate the results of the research, basically composed of exposition, argumentation and discussion.

Exposure - the process by which the facts are described and analyzed or the ideas are presented. Argumentation - defends the validity of ideas through logical reasoning, rational evidence of facts, in an orderly manner, classifying and ranking them.

Discussion - consists of comparing ideas, refuting or confirming the arguments previously presented through an interpretation exercise. When developing the text, remember: Exposition Argumentation Discussion


10.3 Conclusion: the conclusion is the interpretative synthesis of the arguments or elements contained in the development. That is why he does not admit any new ideas, facts or arguments. In case the work is not conclusive, it is advisable to title the final part as 'final considerations'. Remember: In conclusion, your value judgment is important.


11. ANNEX (optional)

It is the supplementary subject, such as laws, questionnaires, statistics, that is added to a work as clarification or documentation, without being an essential part of it. Attachments are numbered in Arabic numerals followed by the title. Its location is at the end of the work, before the glossary, if any.

12. GLOSSARY (optional)

It is the list of words of restricted use, accompanied by the respective definitions that must appear after the text in order to clarify the reader about the meaning of the terms used in the work. It is presented in alphabetical order, after the annexes and before the bibliographic references.


They constitute the list of sources used by the author. All works cited in the text must be included in the bibliographic references to allow unambiguous identification of the work.



It is the alphabetical, chronological or systematic list of documents on a given subject or author. At the end of the article or book, the final bibliography is added. The following essential elements must be included: author, document title, edition, place of publication, publisher and date; but the following data can be added: translator, volume, collection, serial number and number of pages.